Dante's Works

Conflict in Florence and Italy


  • Guelphs vs Ghibellines
  • Pope vs Emperor
  • White Guelphs vs Black Guelphs

Guelphs vs Ghibellines

  • 1248: Ghibellines drive out Guelphs in Florence
  • 1250: Guelphs drive out Ghibellines
  • 1260: Battle of Montaperti: Ghibellines (w/ Manfred) defeat Guelphs
  • 1266: Battle of Benevento: Manfred killed – Guelphs triumph


  • May 1300: Whites in charge; riots b/w Blacks and Whites; both sides punished
  • Spring 1301: banished Whites returned; Blacks forced to remain outside Florence
  • October 1301: joint embassy to Rome (+ Dante)
  • 1302: Blacks supported by Charles of Valois (sent by pope Boniface VIII); Whites exiled (Dante included)